Smartphone Microscopic Method Developed by Scientists of Nepal 1st time.

A smartphone microscopic method for simultaneous detection of (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

Bhanu Bhakta Neupane, Sajeev Wagle, Samiksha Pokhrel, Basant Giri, and the rest research team of Nepal has developed a smartphone microscope that can View eggs of germs causing Diarrhoea and Dysentry. The research article related to this research and technology was published on PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES. PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US. Their research was published on September 8, 2020, according to the PLOS website.

About the Authors

Basant Giri

Roles: Conceptualization, Form Analysis, Funding Acquisition, Methodology, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – review, and Editing

Affiliations: Centre for Analytical Sciences, Kathmandu Institute of Applied Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Bhanu Bhakta Neupane

Roles: Conceptualization, Form Analysis, Funding Acquisition, Methodology, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – review, and Editing

Affiliations: Centre for Analytical Sciences, Kathmandu Institute of Applied Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal, Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Retina Shrestha

Roles: Form Analysis, Investigation, Visualization, Writing – original draft

Affiliations: Centre for Analytical Sciences, Kathmandu Institute of Applied Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Samiksha Pokhrel

Roles: Investigation

Affiliations: Centre for Analytical Sciences, Kathmandu Institute of Applied Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Sajeev Wagle

Roles: Investigation

Affiliations: Centre for Analytical Sciences, Kathmandu Institute of Applied Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Rojina Duwal

Roles: Investigation

Affiliations: Centre for Analytical Sciences, Kathmandu Institute of Applied Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.

The background of research was “Food and water-borne illness caused by ingestion of (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia are one of the major health problems globally. Several methods are available to detect Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst in food and water. Most of the available methods require a good laboratory facility and well-trained manpower and are therefore costly. There is a need for an affordable and reliable method that can be easily implemented in resource-limited settings.”

The Research team from Nepal developed a smartphone-based on microscopic assay method to screen (oo) cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of vegetable and water samples. This method consisting of a ball lens of 1 mm diameter, white LED as an illumination source, and Lugol’s iodine staining provided magnification and contrast of distinguishing (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

According to the Article “The analytical performance of the method was tested by spike recovery experiments. The spike recovery experiments performed on cabbage, carrot, cucumber, radish, tomatoes, and water resulted in 26.8±10.3, 40.1±8.5, 44.4±7.3, 47.6±11.3, 49.2 ±10.9, and 30.2±7.9% recovery for Cryptosporidium

, respectively and 10.2±4.0, 14.1±7.3, 24.2±12.1, 23.2±13.7, 17.1±13.9, and 37.6±2.4% recovery for Giardia, respectively. The spike recovery results are comparable with data obtained using commercial brightfield and fluorescence microscope methods.”

Finally, “we tested the smartphone microscope system for detecting (oo)cysts on 7 types of vegetable (n = 196) and river water (n = 18) samples. Forty-two percent of vegetable and thirty-nine percent of water samples were found to be contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocyst. Similarly, thirty-one percent of vegetables and thirty-three percent of water samples were contaminated with the Giardia cyst.” (All the data are taken from the Research paper Article).

Smartphone Microscopic Method
Smartphone Microscopic Method

The whole Research was supported and funded by NAS and USAID (to BG and BBN) through Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER)  (AID-OAA-A-11-00012). The opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or NAS. The funders had no role in study design, data collection, and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript as mentioned in the Research paper published on PLOS.

The Research was received on April 13, 2020, as per the PLOS article, accepted on July 4, 2020, and published on September 8, 2020. Once again the Nepalese have proved their talents in the International stage. We feel proud to have such Scientists in our country.

The conclusions of the research were “The newly developed smartphone microscopic method showed comparable performance to commercial microscopic methods. The new method can be low-cost and easy to implement an alternative method for simultaneous detection of (oo)cysts in vegetable and water samples in resource-limited settings.”

Resources: All the pieces of information are collected from the official website of PLOS. Please visit the PLOS website to learn more about the Research Paper and Journal. Click here to learn more about the Research Paper.

Official website of PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES: https://plos.org/

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